Journal article

Does the 'gateway' matter? Associations between the order of drug use initiation and the development of drug dependence in the National Comorbidity Study Replication

L Degenhardt, WT Chiu, K Conway, L Dierker, M Glantz, A Kalaydjian, K Merikangas, N Sampson, J Swendsen, RC Kessler

Psychological Medicine | CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS | Published : 2009


Awarded by National Institute of Mental Health

Awarded by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Awarded by National Institutes of Health

Awarded by US NIMH

Awarded by US Public Health Service

Awarded by Fogarty International Center

Funding Acknowledgements

The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) is supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; U01-MH60220) with supplemental support from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF; Grant 044708), and the John W. Alden Trust. Data analyses and manuscript preparation were undertaken with support from an Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, NIMH (Kalaydjian, Merikangas), grants K01 DA15454 and R01 DA012058 from the NIDA (Dierker), and an Investigator Award from the Patrick and Catherine Weldon Donaghue Medical Research Foundation (Dierker). The National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (Degenhardt), and Degenhardt is the recipient of an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC) Senior Research Fellowship. The NCS-R is carried out in conjunction with the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. We thank the WMH staff for assistance with instrumentation, fieldwork and data analysis. These activities were supported by the US NIMH (R01MH070884), the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Pfizer Foundation, the US Public Health Service (R13-MH066849, R01-MH069864, and R01 DA016558), the Fogarty International Center (FIRCA R01-TW006481), the Pan American Health Organization, Eli Lilly and Company, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. A complete list of WMH publications can be found at