Journal article

Redox sulfur chemistry of the copper chaperone Atox1 is regulated by the enzyme glutaredoxin 1, the reduction potential of the glutathione couple GSSG/2GSH and the availability of Cu(I)

Jens Brose, Sharon La Fontaine, Anthony G Wedd, Zhiguang Xiao



Glutaredoxins have been characterised as enzymes regulating the redox status of protein thiols via cofactors GSSG/GSH. However, such a function has not been demonstrated with physiologically relevant protein substrates in in vitro experiments. Their active sites frequently feature a Cys-xx-Cys motif that is predicted not to bind metal ions. Such motifs are also present in copper-transporting proteins such as Atox1, a human cytosolic copper metallo-chaperone. In this work, we present the first demonstration that: (i) human glutaredoxin 1 (hGrx1) efficiently catalyses interchange of the dithiol and disulfide forms of the Cys(12)-xx-Cys(15) fragment in Atox1 but does not act upon the isolated s..

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