Journal article

Analgesic effectiveness of caudal levobupivacaine and ketamine

BG Locatelli, G Frawley, A Spotti, P Ingelmo, S Kaplanian, B Rossi, L Monia, V Sonzogni

British Journal of Anaesthesia | OXFORD UNIV PRESS | Published : 2008


BACKGROUND: Ketamine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the action of a caudal block. This study was designed to determine if adding S(+)-ketamine 0.5 mg kg(-1) allows a lower concentration of levobupivacaine to be used for caudal anaesthesia without loss of clinical effectiveness. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four children (ASA I or II) aged 3 months-6 yr were randomly allocated to receive 1 ml kg(-1) of levobupivacaine 0.15% with 0.5 mg kg(-1) S(+)-ketamine (Group 1), levobupivacaine 0.175% with 0.5 mg kg(-1) S(+)-ketamine (Group 2), or levobupivacaine 0.2% (Group 3) by the caudal route. Pain, motor block, sedation, and requirement for postoperative analge..

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