Journal article

Grainyhead-like 3 regulation of endothelin-1 in the pharyngeal endoderm is critical for growth and development of the craniofacial skeleton

Sebastian Dworkin, Johanna Simkin, Charbel Darido, Darren D Partridge, Smitha R Georgy, Jacinta Caddy, Tomasz Wilanowski, Graham J Lieschke, Karen Doggett, Joan K Heath, Stephen M Jane

Mechanisms of Development | ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV | Published : 2014


Craniofacial development is a highly conserved process that requires complex interactions between neural crest cells (NCCs) and pharyngeal tissues derived from all three germ layers. Signals emanating from the pharyngeal endoderm drive differentiation of NCCs into craniofacial cartilage, and disruption of this process underpins several human craniofacial defects (CFD). Here, we demonstrate that morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown in zebrafish of the highly conserved transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (grhl3), which is selectively expressed in the pharyngeal endoderm, leads to severe hypoplasia of the lower jaw cartilages. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved grhl-binding sites in gene regul..

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