Journal article

Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi observations of X-ray and gamma-ray selected blazars

P Giommi, G Polenta, A Lahteenmaki, DJ Thompson, M Capalbi, S Cutini, D Gasparrini, J Gonzalez-Nuevo, J Leon-Tavares, M Lopez-Caniego, MN Mazziotta, C Monte, M Perri, S Raino, G Tosti, A Tramacere, F Verrecchia, HD Aller, MF Aller, E Angelakis Show all

Astronomy & Astrophysics | EDP SCIENCES S A | Published : 2012


We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and γ-ray bands, with additional 5GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detec..

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Awarded by NASA

Awarded by Academy of Finland

Awarded by NSF

Awarded by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation

Awarded by National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)

Awarded by Science and Technology Facilities Council

Funding Acknowledgements

We thank the entire Swift team for the help and support and especially the Science Planners and Duty Scientists for their invaluable help and professional support with the planning and execution of a large number of ToOs. The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MICINN and JA (Spain); Tekes, AoF and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); and DEISA (EU). A full description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at We thank the Planck team and in particular the members of the Data Processing Centers for their support in the reduction of LFI and HFI data carried out specifically for this work. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in France is gratefully acknowledged. The Metsahovi team acknowledges the support from the Academy of Finland to our projects (numbers 212656, 210338, 121148, and others). This work was also supported by grants 127740 and 122352 of the Academy of Finland. UMRAO is supported by a series of grants from the NSF and NASA, and by the University of Michigan. This publication is partly based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory. This research is partly based on observations with the 100-m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg, the IRAM 30-m telescope, and the Medicina (Noto) telescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia. J. Wu and X. Zhou are supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation grants 10633020, 10778714, and 11073032, and by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) No. 2007CB815403. The OVRO 40-m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G and NNG06GG1G and NSF grant AST-0808050. O. G. King acknowledges the support of a Keck Institute for Space Studies Fellowship. W. Max-Moerbeck acknowledges support from a Fulbright-CONICYT scholarship. V.r Pavlidou acknowledges support provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF8-90060 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. This paper makes use of observations obtained at the Very Large Array (VLA) which is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. We acknowledge the use of data and software facilities from the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), managed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Part of this work is based on archival data and on bibliographic information obtained from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) and from the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). We thank the anonymous referee for his/her useful and constructive comments.