Journal article

Classroom composition and peer effects

JAC Hattie

International Journal of Educational Research | Published : 2002


This chapter examines the extent to which the composition of classes affects learning outcomes. The aim is to explore peer effects when students are organized into classes on the basis of ability, ethnicity, or gender, as well as the effects of multigrade and multi-age classes and class size. The argument is defended that these composition factors affect only the probability that differential instruction and learning occur and that, at best, their influences are indirect. Teachers appear not to change their teaching activities when class composition is changed and most often the power of peer effects is rarely realized. Any direct effects of class composition are less related to learning out..

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