Journal article

Shining the Light on Sunshine: a systematic review of the influence of sun exposure on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related outcomes

Catherine Shore-Lorenti, Sharon L Brennan, Kerrie M Sanders, Rachel E Neale, Robyn M Lucas, Peter R Ebeling



Prospective observational studies uniformly link vitamin D deficiency with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), yet trials supplementing participants at risk of T2DM with vitamin D to reduce progression to T2DM have yielded inconsistent results. Inconsistencies between supplementation trials may be due to insufficient dosing or small sample sizes. Observational studies may also have reported spurious associations due to uncontrolled confounding by lifestyle or genetic factors. Alternatively, observational and intervention studies may not be entirely comparable. Observational studies show an association between higher vitamin D status, which is predominantly derived from sun expo..

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Funding Acknowledgements

REN, RML and PRE are Chief Investigators for the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) funded Centre for Research Excellence in Sun and Health (CRESH). Aside from the influence of these authors, CRESH had no influence on methods, interpretation or discussion. CS-L thanks CRESH for the top-up scholarship and library staff at The University of Melbourne for the assistance in the initial phases of electronic literature searching. This work was also supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award (CS-L), NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (SLB), NHMRC Career Development Fellowship (RML) and an NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship (REN).