Journal article

Identity-based motivations and anticipated reckoning: Contributions to gift-giving theory from an identity-stripping context

Jill G Klein, Tina M Lowrey, Cele C Otnes



We utilize the Identity-Based Motivation (IBM) model to examine gift giving within the identity-stripping context of Nazi concentration camps, as reported in the memoirs of Holocaust survivors. By exploring gift giving in this crisis-laden context, we demonstrate the fundamental role gifts can play in reestablishing personal and social identities. In doing so, we provide insights into the motivations for giving that go beyond the existing paradigms that emphasize social exchange, economic exchange, or agapic giving. Further, we introduce the construct of anticipated reckoning, in which people self-regulate their behavior through an imagined future self whom they perceive to judge their curre..

View full abstract

University of Melbourne Researchers


Funding Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Ziv Carmon, Andrew John, Julie Ozanne, Sankar Sen, John F. Sherry, Jr., and L. J. Shrum for their helpful comments on this manuscript, as well as Samuelson Appau, Samantha Blackburn, Julian Hartman, Gene Klein, Min Liu, and Yuexin Yu for general assistance while preparing the manuscript. We also thank Daphna Oyserman and three anonymous JCP reviewers for their constructive insights and suggestions. Finally, we thank Melbourne Business School, INSEAD Research and Development, the HEC Foundation, and the University of Texas at San Antonio College of Business for their support of this project.