Effect of calcium chloride addition and draining pH on the microstructure and texture of full fat Cheddar cheese during ripening
Kevany Soodam, Lydia Ong, Ian B Powell, Sandra E Kentish, Sally L Gras
FOOD CHEMISTRY | ELSEVIER SCI LTD | Published : 2015
Calcium chloride is commonly added to cheese-milk to improve coagulum formation and to increase cheese yield but high concentrations of calcium ions can have adverse effects. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were coupled with textural and chemical analyses to observe microstructural and biochemical changes that occur in cheese during ripening when calcium chloride is added or the draining pH altered. For the cheese prepared with no additional calcium at a draining pH of 6.0, the cheese porosity increased with ripening time and the number of protein vertices in the microscopy images declined, indicative of protein solubilisation. As the a..View full abstract
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Awarded by Dairy Innovation Australia
The authors would acknowledge the Australian Government for providing the Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) scholarship and Dairy Innovation Australia for financial support (project grant 08209C). We also thank Warrnambool Cheese and Butter for the supply of cheese-milk and for providing access to the equipment and plant for the cheese-making process in Allansford (Victoria, Australia). We thank Murray Goulburn and Lion for their involvement in the project. We also thank the Particulate Fluids Processing Centre (PFPC), the Bio21 Institute for access to equipment and more specifically, the Electron Microscopy Unit and the Biological Optical Microscopy Platform. We thank Mr. Roger Curtain for his help in operating the scanning electron microscope in cryo mode and Ms. Rachel Knight of Bioscreen (Australia) for providing access to and advice regarding the operation of the MALDI-TOF biotyper. The authors would also thank the Department of Mathematics and Statistics (University of Melbourne, Australia) and Ms. Rachel Sore for statistical advice.