Multiple Resistances Against Formulated Organophosphates, Pyrethroids, and Newer-Chemistry Insecticides in Populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan
Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Waqas Wakil, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Noor Abid Saeed, Derek Allan Russell
JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY | OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC | Published : 2015
Field populations of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner from 15 localities across the Punjab, Pakistan, were assessed by the leaf dip method for resistance against formulated organophosphates, pyrethroids, and newer insecticide groups. Resistance levels in H. armigera have been incrementally increasing for organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides after decades of use in Pakistan. Resistance ratios (RRs) documented for organophosphates were 24- to 116-fold for profenofos and 22- to 87-fold for chlorpyrifos. For pyrethroids, RRs were 3- to 69-fold for cypermethrin and 3- to 27-fold for deltamethrin. Resistance levels against newer chemistries were 2- to 24-fold for chlorfenapyr, 1- to 22-fold for ..View full abstract
Awarded by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
We are highly indebted to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial assistance for the study as a scholarship to M.A. Qayyum through the Indigenous Scholarship PhD Program (117-3555-Av7-057) in Entomology at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. This manuscript is the contribution (ORIC-14-06) from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.