Journal article

Three-Fingered RAVERs: Rapid Accumulation of Variations in Exposed Residues of Snake Venom Toxins

Kartik Sunagar, Timothy NW Jackson, Eivind AB Undheim, Syed A Ali, Agostinho Antunes, Bryan G Fry

TOXINS | MDPI | Published : 2013

Abstract

Three-finger toxins (3FTx) represent one of the most abundantly secreted and potently toxic components of colubrid (Colubridae), elapid (Elapidae) and psammophid (Psammophiinae subfamily of the Lamprophidae) snake venom arsenal. Despite their conserved structural similarity, they perform a diversity of biological functions. Although they are theorised to undergo adaptive evolution, the underlying diversification mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report the molecular evolution of different 3FTx functional forms and show that positively selected point mutations have driven the rapid evolution and diversification of 3FTx. These diversification events not only correlate with the evolution of a..

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Grants

Awarded by F.C.T (Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia)


Awarded by F.C.T


Funding Acknowledgements

KS was funded by the PhD grant (SFRH/BD/61959/2009) from F.C.T (Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia). TNWJ was funded by a PhD scholarship from the University of Queensland. AA was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme and national funds through F.C.T under the projects PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013 and PTDC/AAC-AMB/121301/2010 (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019490), and BGF was funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the University of Queensland. SAA was the recipient of a postdoctoral fellowship (PDRF Phase II Batch-V) from Higher Education Commission (HEC Islamabad) Pakistan. EABU acknowledges funding from the University of Queensland (International Postgraduate Research Scholarship, UQ Centennial Scholarship, and UQ Advantage Top-Up Scholarship) and the Norwegian State Education Loans Fund.