Journal article

Squeezers and Leaf-cutters: Differential Diversification and Degeneration of the Venom System in Toxicoferan Reptiles

Bryan G Fry, Eivind AB Undheim, Syed A Ali, Timothy NW Jackson, Jordan Debono, Holger Scheib, Tim Ruder, David Morgenstern, Luke Cadwallader, Darryl Whitehead, Rob Nabuurs, Louise van der Weerd, Nicolas Vidal, Kim Roelants, Iwan Hendrikx, Sandy Pineda Gonzalez, Ivan Koludarov, Alun Jones, Glenn F King, Agostinho Antunes Show all



Although it has been established that all toxicoferan squamates share a common venomous ancestor, it has remained unclear whether the maxillary and mandibular venom glands are evolving on separate gene expression trajectories or if they remain under shared genetic control. We show that identical transcripts are simultaneously expressed not only in the mandibular and maxillary glands, but also in the enigmatic snake rictal gland. Toxin molecular frameworks recovered in this study were three-finger toxin (3FTx), CRiSP, crotamine (beta-defensin), cobra venom factor, cystatin, epididymal secretory protein, kunitz, L-amino acid oxidase, lectin, renin aspartate protease, veficolin, and vespryn. We..

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Awarded by Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)

Funding Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through the PhD grant conferred to KS (SFRH/BD/61959/2009) and the project PTDC/AAC-AMB/121301/2010 (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019490) to AA. EABU acknowledges funding from the University of Queensland (International Postgraduate Research Scholarship, UQ Centennial Scholarship, and UQ Advantage Top-Up Scholarship) and the Norwegian State Education Loans Fund. BGF was funded by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship and by the University of Queensland. SAA was the recipient of postdoctoral fellowship (PDRF Phase II Batch-V) from Higher Education Commission (HEC Islamabad) Pakistan. TNWJ was funded by an Australian Postgraduate Award.