Journal article

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the Proteins Encoded by Coleoid (Cuttlefish, Octopus, and Squid) Posterior Venom Glands

Tim Ruder, Kartik Sunagar, Eivind AB Undheim, Syed A Ali, Tak-Cheung Wai, Dolyce HW Low, Timothy NW Jackson, Glenn F King, Agostinho Antunes, Bryan G Fry



In this study, we report for the first time a detailed evaluation of the phylogenetic history and molecular evolution of the major coleoid toxins: CAP, carboxypeptidase, chitinase, metalloprotease GON-domain, hyaluronidase, pacifastin, PLA2, SE-cephalotoxin and serine proteases, with the carboxypeptidase and GON-domain documented for the first time in the coleoid venom arsenal. We show that although a majority of sites in these coleoid venom-encoding genes have evolved under the regime of negative selection, a very small proportion of sites are influenced by the transient selection pressures. Moreover, nearly 70 % of these episodically adapted sites are confined to the molecular surface, hig..

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Awarded by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Awarded by FCT

Funding Acknowledgements

BGF was funded by the Australian Research Council, University of Queenland, Herman Slade Foundation and a Universitas 21 Edward Clarence Dyason Fellowship. BGF would also like to thank the University of Hong Kong's Swire Institute of Marine Science for hosting him during Hong Kong fieldwork. SAA was the recipient of postdoctoral fellowship (PDRF Phase II Batch-V) from Higher Education Commission (HEC Islamabad) Pakistan. KS was funded by the PhD grant (SFRH/BD/61959/2009) from Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT). AA was funded by the project PTDC/AACAMB/, 121301/2010 (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019490) from FCT. EABU acknowledges funding from the University of Queensland (International Postgraduate Research Scholarship, UQ Centennial Scholarship, and UQ Advantage Top-Up Scholarship) and the Norwegian State Education Loans Fund.