Identification of the remains of King Richard III
Turi E King, Gloria Gonzalez Fortes, Patricia Balaresque, Mark G Thomas, David Balding, Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Rita Neumann, Walther Parson, Michael Knapp, Susan Walsh, Laure Tonasso, John Holt, Manfred Kayser, Jo Appleby, Peter Forster, David Ekserdjian, Michael Hofreiter, Kevin Schuerer
Nature Communications | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2014
Awarded by Austrian Science Fund (FWF)
Awarded by European Union
Awarded by Science and Technology Facilities Council
This research was funded by The University of Leicester with support from the Wellcome and the Leverhulme Trusts. The original excavation that led to the discovery of Richard III was jointly funded by the University of Leicester, The Richard III Society and Leicester City Council. The archaeological excavation was led by Richard Buckley, co-director of the University of Leicester Archaeological Service. Mathew Morris acted as site director and provided information on burials from archaeological sites in Leicester. This work leading to these results has received funding from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF; P22880-B12), the Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)/Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) within the framework of the Forensic Genomics Consortium Netherlands (FGCN) and was financially supported from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 285487. The Society of Antiquaries of London, the National Trust, the Royal Collection Trust/Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth and Hatfield House generously provided us with portrait images of Richard III free of charge. The National Portrait Gallery kindly provided images at a reduced fee. We thank Anooshka Rawden (SAL), Rosie Jordan, Liz Stacey and Chris Rowlin (NT), Desmond Shawe-Taylor, Agata Rutkowska and Karen Lawson (RCT), Vicki Perry and Sarah Whale (HH) and Matthew Bailey (NPG) for their assistance. Frederick Hepburn also provided information on the portraits. Julie Andrews and Paul Davies (General Practitioners) and Philip Sell (Consultant Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgeon) provided information on abnormalities leading to having one shoulder higher than the other. We thank Derek Hamilton of the SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory for data on the radiocarbon dates previously published in Antiquity. Maarten Larmuseau for data on non-paternity rates previously published in Proc. R Soc B, 280: 20132400. Deirdre O'Sullivan and Richard Buckley advised on burials in quires (choirs) in friaries. Lynne Moore (Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales), Andrew Pye (Principal Project Manager, Exeter City Council) and Mandy Kingdom (PhD Candidate, University of Exeter) provided information on burials in Camarthen Grey Friars and Exeter Dominican excavations respectively. Johanna Paijmans, Catherine Theves, Stephanie Schiavinato, Navdeep Sahota and Heike Siedel provided technical advice. David Annal, Morris Bierbrier and Bob Matthews helped with genealogical research. Alec Jeffreys kindly read over a draft of the paper. Carl Vivian provided a previously unseen image for the cover. We thank Philippa Langley and John Ashdown-Hill (who had previously traced Joy Ibsen and her family) whose faith and perseverance led to the Grey Friars excavation proceeding in the first place. And finally, tremendous thanks to the study participants, Michael Ibsen, Wendy Duldig and five male-line relatives of Richard III (and their families) without whom this research could never have taken place.