Language teaching and learning: Some hard decisions.
J Lo Bianco, Y SLAUGHTER
Babel | AFMLTA | Published : 2009
In his examination of successful innovation and change in education in many settings, Fullan (2001) identifies the three broad options for effecting change that public authorities have at their disposal. They can seek to bring about change through imposing accountability (system-wide or targeted), or through providing incentives (either ‘negatively’as pressure or ‘positively’as support), or they can direct their attention towards ‘capacity-building’for key agents in the field being addressed, such as teachers, schools or universities. It is exceedingly difficult to combine accountability, incentives, and capacity-building, as evidenced by the fact that no government has ever done it effecti..View full abstract