Journal article

Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models

Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Gail Risbridger, John Hutson, Laurence S Baskin

NATURE REVIEWS UROLOGY | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2015

Abstract

Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penile urethra with an incidence of approximately 1:200-1:300 male births, which has doubled over the past three decades. The aetiology of the overwhelming majority of hypospadias remains unknown but appears to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Reliable animal models of hypospadias are required for better understanding of the mechanisms of normal penile urethral formation and hence hypospadias. Mice and/or rats are generally used for experimental modelling of hypospadias, however these do not fully reflect the human condition. To use these models successfully, researchers must understand th..

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