Separate encoding of model-based and model-free valuations in the human brain
Ulrik R Beierholm, Cedric Anen, Steven Quartz, Peter Bossaerts
NeuroImage | ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE | Published : 2011
Behavioral studies have long shown that humans solve problems in two ways, one intuitive and fast (System 1, model-free), and the other reflective and slow (System 2, model-based). The neurobiological basis of dual process problem solving remains unknown due to challenges of separating activation in concurrent systems. We present a novel neuroeconomic task that predicts distinct subjective valuation and updating signals corresponding to these two systems. We found two concurrent value signals in human prefrontal cortex: a System 1 model-free reinforcement signal and a System 2 model-based Bayesian signal. We also found a System 1 updating signal in striatal areas and a System 2 updating sign..View full abstract
Awarded by U.S. National Science Foundation
The authors would like to thank Peter Dayan for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. UB was partly supported by the Gatsby Foundation, SQ and PB by grant SES-0527491 from the U.S. National Science Foundation, and PB by the Swiss Finance Institute.